Marx and Engels

The Communist Manifesto, written by Marx and Engels, represents striking transformation from feudalism to the new time, capitalism. Although it criticizes the new antagonism of classes and Bourgeoisie exploitation, it also valorizes the present. How is this so?

In “Modernity is a Qualitative, Not a Chronological, Category” by Peter Osborne, we see that one aspect of modernity is evaluated as a form of historical consciousness and an abstract temporal structure which provides a background for defining social experience in a specific historical epoch. Modernity is continuation of change, the experience of fleeting, transitory moments, it is an…


Roles and Success of NGOs in Global Trade Governance

NGOs play important roles in global trade governance. They involve legitimation processes, bridging civil society and decision-making, advocating global norms; monitoring states, industry and decision-makers. They also use and spread information with their reports. What are we going to analyze is, how do they carry out this role? Bieri’s categorization of roles is important for us to identify these; NGOs as Legitimizers, Experts and Watchdogs. For the role of legitimizers, we will explain how they use their moral authority and their productive power. As experts, we will see how do NGOs…


Coronavirus threatens the fundamental convictions of our industrial society, which is globalized. The states and governments who believed their capacity to control international complications seem to control so little as we look at the developments. They were prepared for terrorists who benefited from developing transportation technology and communication to carry out their attacks. The states organized, developed strategies, coalitions to neutralize or arrest the terrorists. However, they were not prepared for an enemy who had no gun, no bomb, and neither a life. They found themselves unprepared in the wake of spending billions on arms and military technologies. …


Liquid Modernity, written by Zygmunt Bauman in 1999, is a conceptualization of late modernity just before the second millennium. As its name also mentions, the late modernity is in the liquefaction process. But “Was not modernity a process of ‘liquefaction’ from the start?” asks Bauman. The modernity from the beginning was a process of “disembedding” and “re-embeding”. It is melting solid in order to replace it with “new and improved solids”. However, for Bauman in today’s modernity, there is the only disembedding, and there is no re-embedding. This new modernity promises “no ‘fulfilment’, no rest and no satisfaction of ‘arriving’……


Germany is highly integrated into the regional and global world. Germany is an extraverted country due to its focus on multilateralism and its share of European and Western identity. To better identify its perception of its global stance, I will refer to German decision-makers’ discourses, which will already show how do they orient their foreign policy strategies into objective factors. Germany might be framed as “semi-hegemon” or “reluctant hegemon” when it comes to the European framework, but such hegemony is not present in global politics. Therefore, German foreign policymakers already understand that multilateral, reciprocal, and on the European level, the…

Tugberk Samur

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